This study aims to critically analyze the impact of antipsychotic medication on physical health and suggest the practitioners and professionals regarding the use of anti-psychotics medication. The objectives of this study are a) to critically review the use of anti-psychotics medication in children and adolescents in different indications; b) to analyze the impact of antipsychotic medication on physical health; and c) to suggest the practitioners and professionals regarding the use of anti-psychotics medication.
In this study, the research topic raises a number of general questions that ask: a) how are the anti-psychotics medication used in children and adolescents in different indications?; b) what are the impacts the impact of anti-psychotic medication on physical health?; c) how severe the impact on the human body is?; and how can the practitioners and professionals reduce the side effects of anti-psychotics medication on physical health? These research questions are answered through critical literature reviews of previous and existing research findings.
The key finding of this study is that anti-psychotic medication has a severe impact on psychical health including myocarditis, hyperlipidemia, weight gain, cataract, diabetes mellitus, sexual and extrapyramidal side effects. Additionally, anti-psychotics medication affects physical health including physical attractiveness, mood stabilizers, tricyclic antidepressants, dental caries, scalp hair, shape and smile, acne, eyes, and apathy.
Antipsychotic medications are mainly used for adolescents and children for different indications. In terms of adolescents, this medication is used for bipolar disorder, psychotic conditions, and schizophrenia. In the case of children, antipsychotic medications are used in autism spectrum, tic disorder, and behavior disorders (Grzeskowiak et al., 2016). However, the antipsychotic medication effects including myocarditis, hyperlipidemia, weight gain, cataract, diabetes mellitus, sexual and extrapyramidal side effects. Additionally, anti-psychotics medication affects physical health including physical attractiveness, mood stabilizers, tricyclic antidepressants, dental caries, scalp hair, shape and smile, acne, eyes, and apathy (Ellis et al., 2015). The previous study disclosed that schizophrenia affects health causing poor physical health that causes earlier death. Additionally, this medication causes poorer access to healthcare, lifestyle factors, diagnostic overshadowing, and psychotropic medication.
However, previous researches have given vague ideas about the severity of the effects of this medication on physical health. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the impact of antipsychotics medication on physical health. This study aims to investigate three major psychotropic classes for psychotic disorders that are mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and antipsychotics. Then, this study focuses on several side effects of anti-psychotics medications on physical health to summarize the finding and recommends the practitioners and professionals how the side effects of this medication can be reduced. Therefore, this study conducts a critical literature review on the concepts of the research topic and keywords related to the research topic and concepts. In this review, this study does a systematic search for mortality data, morbidity, and epidemiological data different physical diseases, depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder.
2.0 Background, rationale, aims and objectives
The individual who deals with a mental disease like bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, etc. tend to have a rate of average morality that is usually 2-3 times higher than the general population. The main reason people with SMI face death because of physical disease (Brown et al., 2015). Many reasons can cause mental illness like lifestyle, disparities, etc. and sometimes the dosage of mental disease can raise the risk of mental complications (De Hert et al., 2014). It is important to let the mental disorder patients know about the side effect of the psychotropic medication like an antipsychotic, antidepressant, etc. and can allow them a better treatment process. The medical literature usually doesn’t inform general people about the side effects of antipsychotic medications but still, people are taking this medication for dealing with mental illness (Brown et al., 2015). The reason people are not talking about it mainly they don’t know others about their mental illness to get mock in society (Roshanaei and Katon, 2013).
According to contemporary theory, the physical approach makes influences how socially attractive persons appear to be in society to show a better lifestyle. In society, people usually judge an attractive woman as a happier woman and healthier. People perceived the benefits of beauty and high wages which allows them to have better treatment from better physicians (Laursen, 2016). According to Burn and Farina, attractiveness can be a reason for making the interpersonally rated psychological adjustments. Making improvements in physical attractiveness sometimes helps to raise the self-esteem and social esteem of a person. Physical appearance is mainly known as a personal identity that can determine the success of an individual (Miller and Bauer, 2014). Many humans have a core need for being attractive to others. Schizophrenia, the negative appraisal of a person’s physical approach a turns to a negative attitude which can cause poor social functioning. And the antipsychotic medication for schizophrenia can lead to a negative approach.
The side effect can sometimes appear as gaining weight, having bad breath and bad teeth, hair falling or thinning on the scalp, having an acne problem, etc. The clinical studies do not really work for making a comparison of the side effect of antipsychotic medication (Chesney et al., 2014). It is also true that not all antipsychotic drugs cause side effects but they can cause side effects on some specific uses. The mental illness doctors mainly see young people in their clinic who are dealing with mental illness and who are dealing with overweight and other chronic diseases (Gracious et al., 2014). The reason if asked they said they are having a loss of motivation, self-neglect or feeling isolated in the social situation. The main reason that causes schizophrenia in young people is mainly an unhealthy lifestyle that includes grooming, diet, smoking, etc.
The patient who deals with schizophrenia mainly goes through different kinds of health issues and medical problems which mainly caused by their lifestyle, less personal care and not having proper medical treatment (Luppino et al. 2013). The health issues can also get bitter because of the side effect of antipsychotic medications. The AAP which is also known as atypical antipsychotics has been widely prescribed by doctors for patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other mental unless who causes behavioral problems. It has been almost 15 years since the atypical antipsychotic came to the market and now the psychiatrist has been discovered that the extrapyramidal symptoms can cause less number with the atypical agents and this medication can cause different types of side effects in the body (Campo et al., 2014). There is not so much evidence of the side effect of specific antipsychotics. For this reason, this paper will discuss and review the current findings focusing on diabetes mellitus, weight gain and other side effect that is caused by AAP (Sartorius, 2017).
2.3 Aims and objectives
This study aims to critically analyze the impact of anti-psychotic medication on physical health and suggest the practitioners and professionals regarding the use of anti-psychotics medication.
The objectives of this study are:
- To critically review the use of anti-psychotics medication in children and adolescents in a different indication
- To analyze the impact of anti-psychotic medication on the physical health
- To suggest the practitioners and professionals regarding the use of anti-psychotics medication
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Evidence of how to question/topic area was structured in this study
Structure of research questions
A researchable question refers to uncertainty regarding a specific problem that is examined, challenged and analyzed to collect and provide the necessary information (Straus et al., 2015). The success of research mainly depends on how effectively and well the researcher formulates the research question focusing on the problem faced with clinical practices and research activities. An underlying research question provides information for a researcher to decide whether the research topic is significant, preciseness, and relevant. A research topic can raise several questions that can be mainly classified into the background as well as foreground questions (Wood and Ross, 2016). In this study, the research topic is “the impacts of anti-psychotic medication on physical health”. The general questions generally ask what, how, when, and where about the problems and the foreground questions refer to the patient-oriented questions that interpret the problems by considering and comparing risks vs. benefits for the target patients. In this study, the research topic raises a number of general questions that ask:
- How are the anti-psychotic medication used in children and adolescents in different indications?
- What are the impacts the impact of anti-psychotic medication on physical health?
- How severe the impact on the human body is?
- How can the practitioners and professionals reduce the side effects of antipsychotic medication on physical health?
These research questions are answered in this study through critical literature reviews of previous and existing research findings.
Assessment of the research questions developed
A number of points were considered in developing and assessing the research questions. First, the required resources are determined based on the research questions and were considered early in the process. Secondly, the research questions were presented clearly and engaged to make them relevant and interesting. Thirdly, an initial literature review was done to innovate and develop research questions. Finally, the research questions were refined through systematic planning of the research project……..