Table of Content
1.1 Explain and evaluate the linkages between HR practices and organizational performance.
1.2 Evaluate the role of HR in contributing to employee performance.
2.1 Evaluate the performance against targets of an organization and barriers and blockages in achieving those targets
2.2 Formulate strategies and tactics to overcome the identified barriers and blockages.
3.1 Identify the key HR and employment practices and evaluate their influence on employee performance
4.1 Identify and evaluate various systems central to performance management.
4.2 Explain various ways to integrate these systems.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between HR practices and performance in a way that improves the causal inferences that can be drawn. This article goes beyond previous s work in three ways. First, it examines the phenomenon at the business unit level, thus minimizing the amount of potential `noise’ introduced when studying more heterogeneous HR systems across various businesses within corporations. Secondly, it uses more proximal measures of business unit performance rather than only the distal profitability or stock price measures.
1.1 Explain and evaluate the linkages between HR practices and organizational performance
This research has demonstrated statistically significant relationships between HR practices and business performance (Delery and Doty, 2016). While these studies have been useful for demonstrating the potential value created through HR practices, they have revealed very little regarding the processes through which this value is created (Gardner and Wright, 2013). Some authors have referred to this as the `black box’ problem, noting that the conceptual development of the mediating mechanisms through which HRM has an impact on portability has thus far eluded empirical testing (Purcell et al., 2013). In addition, the vast majority of studies examining the relationship between HR practices and firm performance have been entirely cross-sectional in their design. Further, while providing useful information, such designs are somewhat problematic.
The body of research examining the relationship between HR practices and firm performance has grown exponentially over the past few years. The seminal work in this area was produced by Huselid (2015), who examined the relationship between HR practices and corporate turnover, profitability and market value. Huselid (2015) surveyed senior HR executives in a sample of 968 publicly traded corporations in the US regarding the percentage of employees who were covered by a set of HR practices generally considered representative of a high-performance work system (HPWS). After controlling for a number of variables, this study found that the HR index was significantly related to the gross rate of return on assets. Delery and Doty (2016) examined the relationship between HR practices and portability in a sample of banks in the US. In testing universalistic, contingency and conjugational approaches to HRM, they found that, in general, HR practices were positively related to portability. Guthrie (2001) examined the impact of HR practice on son turnover and productivity among a sample of New Zealand.
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This study shows that HR practices had an impact on turnover and that the relationship between retention and productivity was positive when implemented high-involvement HR practices, but negative when they did not. Two major studies at the plant level have been conducted examining the relationship between HR practices and firm performance. MacDuffie (2015) found that the HR practice `bundles’ he measured were related to quality and productivity on auto assembly lines. Meanwhile, Torrington et al. (2015) discovered that human capital-enhancing HR practices were related to operational performance among a sample of manufacturing plants. While much of the research on the relationship between HR practices and performance has somewhat consistently revealed a significant relationship, some recent debates have emerged regarding the value of different approaches to studying this phenomenon. Debates have arisen regarding the proper sources for gaining the most valid reports of HR practice measures, the proper level of analysis and proximity of performance measures, and the timing of measurement.
Mullins (2014) reviewed much of the existing research on the relationship between HR practices and performance and proposed that measures of performance could be broken down into four categories. First, employee outcomes deal with the consequences of the practices on employees such as their attitudes and behavior, particularly behavior such as absenteeism and turnover. Organizational outcomes focus on more operational measures of performance such as productivity, quality and shrinkage, many or all of which would be precursors to profitability. Financial/accounting outcomes refer to the actual financial performance measures and include expenses, revenues and portability. Finally, market-based outcomes react to how the financial markets value an HRM, particularly stock price or variations of it (Britton and Gold, 2012).
1.2 Evaluate the role of HR in contributing to employee performance
Human Resource (HR) practices are vital for the development of organizations (Hallberg and Schaufeli, 2016). Some of the important HR practices include recruitment of the staff, selection techniques, market-oriented training, performance enhancement, adequate exchange system, social security appraisals and planned strategic needs (Tessema and Soeters, 2016). Apart from various HR practices, external factors (such as equipment, technology and finance) play an important role in the working capacity and manufacturing of organizations. Although HR practices and external factors enhance workers’ engagement, in turn, workers’ job satisfaction and performance; retention of engaged workers is cardinal in quality performance and success of the business in an organization (Slatten and Mehmetoglu, 2011).
Workers’ engagement divulges mental absorption and displays their positive connection with organizational work. The elaboration of this process can be extended by considering virtuous relations which must involve psychological containment. Hence, the job containment of employees can surely transmit their efforts towards prosperity and efficiency. Job satisfaction of the employees depends on various socio-demographic and cultural factors such as professional attitude towards job, tolerant outcomes, organizational commitment and emotional values attached to the professional behavior (Baumruk, 2014)………