Table of Contents
- Literature Review.
2.1 Information Technology and its role.
2.2 Networking technologies and their usages.
2.3 Ethics and social issues of using technology in businesses.
2.4 The importance of intranet and internet in business.
- Analysis and Discussion.
3.1 Role of information technology in M&S business.
3.1.1 Types of different information systems used in M&S.
3.2 Different network technologies used in M&S.
3.3 Ethics and social issues in M&S.
3.4 The importance of intranet and internet for M&S.
3.5 Role of information technology in management
3.6 Various stages of system development life cycle of a business.
Marks and Spencer are also known as M&S. This is a British retail company. Its headquarter is in London, UK. This company is specialized in selling different foods products, home products, and clothing. It sells most of its products on its own label. This company is listed on London Stock Exchange, FTSE 100 Index, and FTSE250 Index. This company is founded in 1884 and it has now over 1400stores across the UK, where over 800 stores sell only foods and beverage items. However, due to adverse situations and Brexit issues, this company has decided to close over 100 stores by 2020 that is a radical plan, and again in 2020, it has cut about 7000 jobs due to the pandemic situation of Covid-19. It has gained £10181.9 million in revenue, £254.8 million in operating income, and £27.4 million in net income in 2020 (M&S Annual Report, 2020).
This paper first gives an overview of the chosen company called M&S and provides an overview of the technologies used in its business. Then, this paper conducts a literature review on different technologies used by modern businesses in the present world. As part of this literature review, this paper reviews literature related to information technology and its roles in business, different networking technologies, social and ethical issues in using technologies, and intranet and internet usages in business. The second part of this paper discusses and analyzes the technologies used by M&S in its business. As part of discussion and analysis, this paper defines the roles of technology in M&S, the information system used in M&S, network technology used in M&S, ethics and social issues related to M&S technology usages, the importance of intranet and internet in M&S, and system development lifecycle in M&S.
M&S is one of the biggest retailers in the UK that has now over 1400 stores and employed over 8000 people. It is not only working in the UK, but it also has a presence in some international markets. Thus, M&S needs to use several modern and advanced technologies to connect its head offices, corporate offices, branch offices, and stores in both domestic and international markets. Additionally, M&S is now offering online shopping via its websites. Additionally, it is now using several network sites and social media like Facebook, YouTube, and search engines such as Google and Yahoo.
Thus, it is essential for this company to use Internet and network technologies. As this company has hundreds of stores, many branches, head offices/corporate offices and need to connect them safely and securely, it uses several intranet technologies. In addition, it needs to offer unique selling points, excellent customer services, and build up stronger customer relationships. Thus, this company needs to use several technologies related to the decision-making systems, customer relationship management, dealing with customer databases, and many more (M&S Annual Report, 2020).
2. Literature Review
2.1 Information Technology and its role
Information technology (IT) is a wider field but particularly IT means the technologies related to computer technology and their use in business functions and processes. Its other name is computing and networking technologies that focus on enormous work scope and dealing with technological problems in business for managing information. IT also includes sharing all aspects of information using a variety of networks and the internet including servers, storage databases, applications, operating systems, and physical hardware (Kaur, 2017).
Information technology has been going through several breakthroughs and advancements for ages and influenced businesses in every footstep. Most importantly, IT has been playing a significant role in business during this pandemic situation of Covid-19 by quickly and easily sharing information among global people. Organizations are now using IT to improve public health by sharing information related to any breakthroughs, medical advice, and preventive measures (Alam et al., 2020).
IT fosters innovation in business using improved data store, smarter apps, faster processing that ultimately increases business efficiency, quality, productivity, values and performance. Finally, IT increases business security, reduces business risks, helps in effective decision making, provides better customer experience and more efficient daily operations, and improves business communications among the business stakeholders (Donohoe, 2019)
2.2 Networking technologies and their usages
Networking technology refers to those technologies that are used to exchange data in businesses. Using these networking technology businesses can send digital data like visual files, data, audio, and can conduct message sending, files sending through email and fax, and do audio and video conferencing. Networking technologies can be classified based on transmission and scale of data and based on how much data/information needs to be transmitted and exchanged. Based on data transmission networking technologies are classified as point to point, and multipoint. When data is needed to transform from one particular point to other single particular points, then point to point connection is used, and but when data is needed to transform from several points to multipoint, the multipoint is used.
On the other hand, based on data skills networking technology is classified as LAN, WAN, MAN, PAN, and VPN. LAN means local area network is used when data is needed to transform within a single building or office, where MAN means metropolitan area network is used when data is needed to transform among several offices/buildings within a city or town or specific local areas. On the other hand, WAN means wide areas network is used when data is needed to transform globally anywhere across the world. PAN means a personal area network is used to share data between computer devices close to a person. This network is wireless. VPN means a virtual private network is used to transform data using public networks from sender to receivers (Elprocus, 2020).
2.3 Ethics and social issues of using technology in businesses
According to Lumen (2020) ethical and social issues have been rising more than ever before in the case of using technology in business, mainly in terms of creating a new brand. A business may face multiple ethical issues in using technology including hacking, exploiting customer data, confidentiality and privacy of customer data. Modern business organizations are trying or planning to use Artificial Intelligent (AI) but it is estimated that 90% of its functions are correct or a mere 15%. Although this technology builds confidence in users and keeps in mind the potential errors. Ethics refers to a number of principles of right and wrong, where information systems raise different ethical issues due to intense social changes. The use of new technology buy has a significant effect on the current equilibrium that creates ethical and social issues and that need to be dealt with by every business.
The business also needs to consider any potential social and ethical factors before developing rules, and behavior for use of particular technology. The technology uses in businesses can threaten buyer autonomy, can violate their privacy rights, as well as can directly harm buyers physically and financially. Additionally, technology can contentious by affecting societal norms and individual values. Technology can also embed values and politics and can work differently for different groups of buyers and can affect the structuring roles and responsibilities in businesses. Thus, it is essential for businesses to strictly follow different ethical and social rules including the digital security act, data privacy act, human right act (Martin et al., 2019)…………………………