Table of Contents
1.0 Framing the topic/question within the review.
2.0 Search Strategies.
2.1 Inclusion or Exclusion Criteria.
About Inclusion study.
About exclusion study.
Inclusion or exclusion in this study.
2.2 Process of selection.
2.3 Data collection.
3.0 Literature review/summarizing the evidence.
3.1 Definition of psychological abuse.
3.2 Definition of child emotional abuse.
3.3 Types of child emotional abuse.
3.4 Way to recognize emotional abuse.
3.5 Impact of mental abuse on children.
4.0 Discussion/interpreting the finding of literature.
Potential impacts of child mental abuse.
Impact of mental abuse on children in their adult life.
Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect
Medical and Physiological Consequences.
Cognitive and Intellectual Consequences.
Long-term Consequences of Child Maltreatment
Interaction of Risk and Protective Factors.
Cognitive Appraisal of Events.
Relationship with a Significant Person.
Awareness of child mental abuse.
Coping strategies and defense mechanisms employed by abuse victims.
1.0 Framing the topic/question within a review
According to Walker et al. (2016), the term “Childhood maltreatment” has linked with many somatic or psychological somatic symptoms in adult life and also psychiatric diseases such as depression, eating disorder, anxiety and stress disorders. Additionally, research conducted by Felitti et al. (2016) stated that a mixture of several kinds of child maltreatment is also linked with increased health problems in adult life. The medical diagnoses have linked with ‘childhood maltreatment’ and characterized several syndromes related to childhood maltreatment including disability, pain and abnormalities, fibromyalgia, headaches, chronic fatigue syndrome, etc (Katon, Sullivan and Walker, 2015).
According to Barsky and Borus (2017), despite this evidence, a number of medical literature has not succeeded to recognize childhood maltreatment as a significant forecast of adult health problems. On the other hand, other research conducted by Widom (2016) disclosed that there is a relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult health problems. As Irving (2017) notes, most of the research has shown that the girls are trapped by childhood abuse or maltreatment. Despite this fact, physical abuse of childhood is more dominant in comparison to sexual abuse. According to the US Department of Health, 2016), physical abuse of childhood is higher than sexual abuse.
However, Anda et al. (2017), the severity of physical abuse of childhood depends on the family background and childhood difficulty variables. Physical abuse in childhood is rarely an isolated event and these childhood abuse/maltreatment can affect health. Research conducted by Whooley and Simoon (2016) disclosed that childhood adversities depend on the family background and other several issues including multiple adversities, measurement of adversity effect. Drossman et al. (2016) said, therefore, it is essential for a guardian to focus on the increasing effect of different kinds of childhood abuse on adult health.
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Several studies have found different patterns that experience physical and psychological abuse in childhood. The physical and psychological abuses are linked with a high level of negative impact. On the other hand, psychological violence has a negative effect while abuse is expected from the mother. In addition, violence from fathers is only linked to a high level of negative impact while it is experienced regularly. A study by Gavin (2016) indicated that childhood abuse occurs negatively in human life that affects later. Research has provided a signal that facing several kinds of maltreatment or abuses in childhood raises several health problems in adulthood. The sufferers with depression are experienced childhood abuse/maltreatment in compare to the non-depressed persons (Doyle, 2017).
The most common form of childhood abuse is emotional neglect, physical abuse, psychological abuse and sexual abuse. Furthermore, a study finds that abusive behaviors are experienced a higher probability that would create depressive symptoms in human life. The relation between childhood abuse and the impact on several aspects of adult health has been examined by the researcher. A study conducted by Greenfield and Marks (2016) found that a negative relationship between childhood abuse participants and their actual health in their adulthood. On the other hand, cumulative disadvantage theory can be used to emotional abuse as the findings show that emotional abuser experience in their childhood that can lead to the continued negative effect in their entire life. A study conducted by Kairys and Johnson (2017) claimed that an abuser’s experience in childhood would raise a chance of a child of recurrent abuse by 50% and may lead to negative effects in their adulthood.
This research is mainly focused on the Impact of long-term psychological abuse experienced in childhood on adult well-being. The key to this research is to discover how different types of child maltreatment, childhood physical abuse and its effect on the adult health of both men and women (Horner, 2015). According to Loring (2017), the mixture of several kinds of child maltreatment is linked with the increased health problems in adult life. Childhood abuse or maltreatment is a major issue nowadays. O’Dougherty (2016) said that form all of the childhood abuse, emotional abuse is the key abuse. However, there are a number of forms of childhood abuse that can affect adult health. Thus, it is essential to reduce child maltreatment form of society. On the other hand, better awareness is also required between the public as well as the professionals about how to deal with childhood abuse to reduce adult health problems (O’Hagan, 2017).