First of all, I would like to thank the almighty God for His kind and blessing and for giving me the knowledge and wisdom to conduct this research study. Secondly, cordial love and blessing to my honorable parents who have been supporting me in career development since childhood. Third, I would appreciate the supervisor of this research study, who has supported me a lot with guidelines and suggestions in conducting the research work successfully. Fourthly, I am delighted to say thanks to my lovely wife who has helped with her motivations and company recovering my stress during the study. Fifthly, I would thanks to the government of Bangladesh for selecting me to provide this MA course as a reward. Finally, I appreciate all of the respondents who participated in the interview done by the researcher.
The Bangladesh Government has adopted a range of incentives and rewards schemes initiatives to motivate its officials to meet the changing needs and expectations of these officials. Although the Bangladesh government is providing several incentives or rewards to its officials including mid-level officials to improve their motivation levels, it is unclear on what basis or with what evidence these incentives and rewards have been provided. Therefore, it has been a significant issue for the Bangladesh Government to conduct a study for evaluating the effectiveness of these incentives or rewards from the perspectives of its high valued officials views. As a result, the undertaking research study has critically evaluated the effectiveness of incentives or rewards provided by the Bangladesh Government to its officials in improving their motivation levels.
The aims of this research study are to evaluate the effectiveness of the current rewards system provided by the Ministry of Public Administration of Bangladesh and to explore how this reward system is linked to officials’ motivation in the workplace. The objectives of this study are: 1)To identify the different rewards or incentives which are widely used by organizations to motivate their employees in workforces; 2) To make a list of rewards distributed by the Government on the basis of preference of the employees; 3) To evaluate the effectiveness of the current education opportunity provided by Ministry of Public Administration of Bangladesh in the perspective of officials’ view; 4) To investigate the impacts of reward provided in terms as education opportunity in increased employee’s motivation in Bangladesh Civil Service (Administration) officials.; 5) To identify the gaps (weakness) the current non-financial reward provided by the Ministry of Public Administration of Bangladesh; and 6) To recommend the Ministry of Public Administration of Bangladesh how it can improve its training or education and development as a reward to improve staffs’ performance in the workplace.
Several methodologies have been formulated in this study. In philosophical terms, the research work followed pragmatism philosophy. As research paradigms, both positivism and interpretive paradigms have been used. Both exploratory and explanatory approaches have been applied to fulfill the research goals. A deductive approach has been applied, focusing on the current theories and literature and developing theoretical and conceptual frameworks focusing on the research aims and objectives, and finally. confirming the research outcome and providing recommendations to the Ministry of Public Administration of Bangladesh.
Both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods have been applied for collecting the required data. As a result, the researcher has applied a mix of survey and interview technique to collect both quantitative and qualitative data designing a questionnaire which include 11 questions. Non-probability sampling technique has been used, where the total participants were 30 BSC officials from the Government of Bangladesh. Among these participants, 10 are living in the UK and doing the courses as a reward, and the other 20 have already done the courses as rewards and working for the Government of Bangladesh. For presenting the quantitative data, MS Excel Sheet has been used, where the data has been presented through the table, bar chart, and pie chart. SPSS application has been used to analyze the quantities data and research findings. On the other hand, for presenting and analyzing the qualitative data themes and features analysis methods have been used.
As the research findings, first men are more motivated to work for the Ministry of Public Administration of Bangladesh in comparison with women. Then, the highest number of workforces of the Ministry of Public Administration of Bangladesh are working as SAS and UNO. Next, the majority number of staffs (69.56%) of the Ministry of Public Administration of Bangladesh is between 30-39 years. Then, married and parents are more motivated to work for the Ministry of Public Administration of Bangladesh in comparison with single persons. Then, the Ministry of Public Administration of Bangladesh has an improved level of staff retention. Finally, Next, majority number of the workforces of the Ministry of Public Administration of Bangladesh have been provided master courses as the rewards to motivate and retain them in the workplaces.
Second, the majority number of officials comment that course as a reward is valuable and its selection process is fair and transparent. 83% of staff comment that the course provided as a reward is beneficial to their role. Then, 80% of workforces believe that the course is provided as reward to the best people. Next, 70% of officials believe that this course as a reward improves staff retention level. Then, 73% of workforces are motivated by this course offered as rewarded. In addition, 70% of employees believe that this course as reward develops their career. Finally, 70% of workforces are overall satisfied with this course as a reward. Third, almost all of the respondents commented that only this course as a reward cannot motivate the workforce, where promotion and recognition with basic salary are the most important to motivate them in the workplace. The respondents identified gaps between the course provided as reward and staff’s expectations as poor quality course provider and university chosen, poor monitoring and review system in course progression, lack in dissertation topic, weaknesses in promotions and posting system.
In conclusion, although the reward provided by the Ministry of Public Administration of Bangladesh are effective in motivating its officials in workplaces, it has some weaknesses. As a result, a number of recommendations have been defined to improve its rewards systems. Firstly, employers should place its staffs according to their own area of expertise and interest and merit. Secondly, the Ministry of Public Administration of Bangladesh can improve courses as a reward in the career path. Thirdly, more logical allowances and incentives can be included to improve staff motivations.
In most of the countries, public sector (including both employees and Managers) is often criticized for not being sufficiently motivated to meet public needs and expectations (Wilde, 1985). As a third-world country, Bangladesh is not exceptional, where guaranteed lifetime employment with a traditional pay structure and seniority-based promotion system is perceived to de-motivate government officials (Stewart, 1989; Bamber, Lansbury and Wailes, 2011)). This suggests therefore that sometimes the structure of reward itself can be a cause of staff de-motivation. Scholars have reported that there is a strong relationship between rewards provided by the employers and staff motivations (Hutchinson, 2013). According to F. W. Taylor (1776, cited by Marchington and Willkinson, 2008), higher levels of work motivation are required traits among managers and leaders. In addition, as Mullins (2013) notes, both staff motivation and individual performance are enhanced by several incentives or rewards including both financial and non-financial rewards (such as pay, promotion, holiday, benefits and allowance etcetera). Furthermore, as Bratton and Gold (2012) discuss, several rewards can play a significant role in improving staff retention and performance level, and a strong relationship between employees and employers. Torrington et al. (2011) state that when staff is motivated in workplaces, they are more likely to be committed and contribute to the achievement of organizational goals and objectives.
In different countries, the public sector takes different approaches to motivate its officials. The Bangladesh Government has adopted a range of incentive and reward schemes initiatives to motivate its officials (mainly mid-level officials) to meet the changing needs and expectations of these officials including; new pay scales, various training and development programs provided both in Bangladesh and overseas, and higher education programs (such as Masters-level courses) as part of a career development strategy (Public Administration Award Rules, 2015). It also offers job security, promotions and bonuses based on seniority, performance appraisals, social status, various financial and non-financial incentives for its employees.
Although Bangladesh Government is providing several incentives or rewards to its officials including mid-level (Administration Cadre) officials to improve their motivation levels, it is unclear on what basis or with what evidence these incentives and rewards have been provided. Moreover, the question has been raised whether these incentives or rewards are effective enough or not. Therefore, it has been a significant issue for the Bangladesh Government to conduct a study for evaluating the effectiveness of these incentives or rewards from the perspectives of its officials views. As a result, the research study has critically evaluated the effectiveness of rewards provided by the Bangladesh Government to its officials in improving their motivation levels. The research study has mainly focused on the mid-level civil officials of the Administration Cadre of the Bangladesh Government because mid-level officers are more aware of their services and looking forward to bring changes and innovations at workplaces than the entry level or junior officers and senior level officers. The research findings will provide suggestions on how Bangladesh Government can provide incentives or rewards to more effectively to improve its staffs (mainly mid-level civil servants) motivation levels.
1.2 Research Background
The study has focused on the rewards provided by the Government of the Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh for the mid-level BCS officials. Jahan (2006) notes that the Government of Bangladesh has two tier administrative systems: upper tier is the central secretariat working for policy formulation at the national level and second tier working for policy implementation and delivering services to the citizen and are responsible for general administration at the field level or sub national level. These both tiers are classified into four key categories namely class 1, class 2, class 3, and class 4 where Class 1 officials are divided into two classes: cadre and non-cadre officials. Cadre officials are classified into two broad spectrums namely BCS (General) and BCS (Professional). BCS (General) consists of 15 different cadres and about 6000 team members (Statistics of Civil Officers and Staff, 2013). Among them, BCS (Administration Cadre) officials are the leading personnel, who are responsible for making all types of policies and their implementation. In the secretariat, they are known according to ascending order assistant secretary, senior assistant secretary, deputy secretary, joint secretary, additional secretary and secretary, where the secretary is the chief administrative and principal accounting officer of the individual Ministry (Secretariat Instructions, 2014). Among these high officials, the senior assistant secretaries and the deputy secretaries are considered as mid-level BCS (Administration Cadre) officials (Jahan, 2006)………………