Task A: Research into the theories, principles, and models of learning in education and training.
- a) Theories, principles, and models of learning and models of learning preferences.
- b) Ways in which theories, principles, and models of learning can be applied to teaching, learning, and assessment
- c) Explain how identifying and taking account of learner’s individual preferences enables inclusive teaching, learning, and assessment
Task B: Analysis of theories, principles, and models of communication used in teaching, learning, and assessment
Task C: Analyze theories, principles, and models of assessment and explain ways in which they can be applied when assessing learning.
Principles of assessment
Model of assessment
Task D: Research into the theories and models of curriculum development
Explain ways in which theories and models of curriculum development can be applied in developing curricula in their own area of specialism.
Task E: research into the theories and models of reflection and evaluation.
Models of reflection.
For teaching, there are many theories of many popular theorists. To teach the learners first teachers need to follow some theories, some cycles, and some instruction in order to teach them with proficiency to understand the condition of the students and their progress. This paper discusses research studies into theories, principals, and models of learning in education training and analysis of them and explanation of how to use them in the field of education and evaluation of the reflection and analysis. This paper also explains the theories of the curriculum of development and how they can be applied.
Task 1: Research into the theories, principles, and models of learning in education and training
a) Theories, principles, and models of learning and models of learning preferences
Theories and principles of learning
According to Wilson (2014), the major three school theories are Behaviorist School; Cognitivist School; Constructivist School, and the Humanist School. In the diagram below the principles of learning are given:
Diagram: Principle of Learning Source: Lecturer Notes (2017)
According to Scales (2013), closed instruction programs like consequences of the learning can be anticipated are considered by most of the behaviorists. Behaviorists set a target or scientific point of view by which the rate of behavior standardized according to science. According to Walker (2007), in the process of teaching and learning, the teacher is the focused point. They believe that the process of learning of human and animals are the same. In the past, in the laboratory, the animals were tested and experimented. It is believed by the behaviorists that extraneous stimulation gives stimulants to us and the reaction we give because of the stimulus is the process of our learning. John Broadus Watson (1878-1958)), Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), Edward Thorndike (1874 –1949), and B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)-Neo-behaviorists evolved the basic behaviorist theories.
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According to Gravells (2011), a chance for learners to consider themselves and their learning process is given by this approach of learning. This approach points to the intellectual learning process in a specific thinking process. According to Walker (2007), obtaining information from thought, senses, and experience is called the learning process. This intellectual process differs individually. Jean Piaget (1896-1980), Jerome Bruner (1915- ), and Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) evolved the basic cognitivism theories. As Bruner (b.1915) stated that, learners should not only focus on the result of the learning process, but they need to be taught that participation in the process is the basis of establishing the knowledge.
Scales (2013) stated that, fulfilling a learner’s requirement is the main point of humanist. A reaction to the past principle is evolved by the humanists. According to Poe (1996), improvement and progress are concentrated by the humanists. Carl Rogers (1902-1987), Abraham Maslow (1908-1970), and Howard Gardner (1943) evolved the basic theories of humanism. As Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) denoted, the basic requirements of everyone should be fulfilled first before moving into the next levels of learning. If any personal matters or complication arises the process of learning may be hampered……….