2.0 How technology advances have rendered traditional models of organizational structure.
2.1 Organizational structure and Technology used in businesses.
2.2 How technology permits the changing of the structure of the organization.
2.3 Importance of information technology to increase the scope of business.
3.0 How technology advances have rendered theories of management roles obsolete in the light of the changing nature of 21st-century corporations.
3.1 Effects of IT on management theories.
3.2 The industrial revolution and scientific management
3.3 IT revolution and management theories.
3.4 Managerial roles in e-commerce in digital businesses.
4.0 Justification in UK retail sector
Technology and retail trends in UK retail sector
The connectivity with the online and UK retail sector
Certification, servicification and automation in UK retail sector
Returnable as well as deposits in UK retail sector
The competitive advantage of e-grocery or online shops.
The future position of the UK retail industry.
The changes of the management system and business position in the UK retail industry.
This present business environment is very much challenging and dynamic for various factors. One of the important factors is information technology. The prime effects of information technology exist in eCommerce & e-businesses. The eCommerce & e-businesses have gotten several positive outcomes from information technology. But the change in information technology changes the practices & structures of management. This business world becomes a global business and the managers are turned into global managers. The global managers perform global works, duties and responsibilities in both national and international business fields. Most of the global works, duties and responsibilities are performed by using information technology (Mujtaba and McFarlane, 2015). The digital platforms have a good impact on the accomplishment of global works, duties and responsibilities of managers. Therefore, business organizations need to implement information technology in the business for creating better planning, distributing, leading and controlling all functions of the business. Mainly IT has roles in the communication sector of the business firms (Bassellier, 2015). This study presents the relationship among IT (e-business and e-commerce), practices & structures of management, and theories of management.
Technological advancement indicates the creation of new and advanced techniques on the basis of digital systems. The eCommerce, as well as e-business both, are new business platforms and these are established due to technological advancement. Traditional business organizations change their activities from traditional methods to digital methods by using technological advancement (Mujtaba and McFarlane, 2015. One of the important factors is information technology. The eCommerce & e-businesses have gotten several positive outcomes from information technology. Information Technology (IT) is a technology by which business organizations can store and manage data as well as create communication channels among the stakeholders of the business organizations. The development of business organizations depends on the application of information technology because business functions may easy due to the application of information technology.
That is why most of the firms are established information technology in the workplace to become a top marketers in the market. According to Gartner (2015), the economic position of the UK is good enough and the amount of expense in the IT sector has also increased. Crichton and Edgar (2016) noted that IT helps firms to find the ultimate weaknesses and challenges by which business firms can eliminate the weaknesses and challenges in the market. The achievement of competitive advantage is ensured through the application of IT. Law and Jogaratnam (2015) noted that IT helps in strategic planning, productivity, and performance level and customer service. In addition, IT supports business firms to boos up market share, identify the customers’ demand, due time deliver quality products, satisfy the employees as well as the remaining stakeholders of the business firms. Information technology supports to implementation of best practices & structures of management that helps to the accomplishment of business goals (Bassellier, 2015). Chen (2017) IT creates a link between the upper and lower-level managers in the digital platforms that save time and cost of the business firms. Stewart (2017) noted that modern business structure is highly affected by IT. For this reason, it is an important topic to create a connection between information technology and business & management structure (Bergeron et al., 2014).
Concept of E-Commerce & E-Business
Hamel (2017) stated that e-commerce is a platform of the business at which customers can buy goods & services and the seller can sell the goods & services by using electronic methods like the internet. Generally, e-commerce is considered the online business between customers and a seller. Willyerd (2014) mentioned that E-commerce can be categorized into 4 kinds. First one is business-to-business (B2B), second is consumer-to-business (C2B), third type is business-to-consumer (B2C), and final type is consumer-to-consumer (C2C). According to Laudon (2015), e-commerce gives an international business platform at which the sellers and customers are interacted in any area by using the internet. E-commerce has several benefits and drawbacks.
Firstly, economic transactions occur in e-commerce on a basis 24/7 (Laudon, 2014). In addition, e-commerce is an international business platform at which the sellers and customers are interacted in any area by using the internet. Secondly, e-commerce helps customers to find the desirable categories of products easily. Mohapatra (2017) stated that e-commerce saves the time of the customers as well as sellers because they need not meet physically. In addition, eCommerce helps to cover a large number of customers and orders (McKie, 2016). Additionally, the operating cost of eCommerce is very low than the traditional method of business. Some drawbacks of eCommerce including lack of credibility in the products quality, safety and security problems, scam and hacking problems and no opportunity to choose the products by the customers directly (The New York Times, 2016).
According to Hamel (2017), e-business is the use of digital platforms and communication tools and technologies to run business operations. E-business is the online business workplace by using technologies and the internet. One of the important parts of e-commerce is E-business. However, E-business has several benefits and drawbacks. According to Willyerd (2014), E-businesses can easily be set up in the workplace by using computers, PC, software and the internet. In addition, the cost of E-business is lower than the traditional method of business. Then, it has no geographical area. Additionally, it helps to a country into digitalization and it has more flexible working hours. McKie (2016) suggested some drawbacks including the absence of physical touch, huge time of product delivery and lack of credibility in the product’s quality, safety and security problems.
1.0 How technology advances have rendered traditional models of organizational structure
2.1 Organizational structure and Technology used in businesses
Mechanistic vs. Organic Models
The production and manufacture task is run by following the model of mechanistic organization. Hunsaker (2018) stated that the organic organizational model is fruitful for open business policies like online business.
Ordoro (2012) stated that the mechanistic model is applied in the hierarchical and bureaucratic pattern of an organization. According to this pattern, the organizations are highly centralized and high formality in business operations and highly depend on the upper-level managers. But the mechanistic model is also used in the simple type of firms and employees feel good and can perform their roles according to their own wills. The upper-level managers are not so much concerned about the business functions of employees (Hunsaker, 2018). For this reason, the productivity and performance of the employees and firm can be reduced. Therefore, the strict business system is applied in the mechanistic organization. This mechanistic model is considered as a stable model than the organic model. In the case of the mechanistic organizational model, the autocratic model is fruitful to control the employees’ performance and business functions…………………………