Table of Contents
2.0 What are the predicted key competencies for 21st-century leaders?.
2.1 Key competencies for 21st-century leaders.
2.1.1 Cognitive competences.
2.1.2 Interpersonal competencies.
2.1.3 Intrapersonal competencies.
2.2 Theories that can be considered under the contemporary approaches of leadership.
2.2.1 Attribution theory.
2.2.2 Charismatic leadership.
2.2.3 Transactional leadership.
2.2.4 Transformational leadership.
3.0 How are these similar or different to classical leadership capabilities?.
Contingency / Situational Theories.
4.0 What are the underlying causes of changes to leadership competencies?.
Advancement in Technology.
5.0 Compare, contrast, synthesize, and critically analyze the academic research on this topic.
5.1 Definitions scholars debated on the topic.
5.2 Key themes/theories.
5.3 Potential applications and implications.
The practice of effective leadership in the workplace for any organization can play a significant role in the achievement of organizational goals. Burns (2014) defines leadership as the process that is mainly used and applied in the workplace to increase staff motivation, staff performance, and business productivity. Bass (2015) stated that leadership is a process that supports the leaders to influence and motivate their followers in the workplace towards organizational goals. McFarland (2012) said leadership is called personality developed by the managers or leaders of an organization to promote the team members towards the business goals and objectives.
There are huge debates and arguments for and against 21st-century leadership. Pauleen (2013). discloses the basic factors and principles of leadership in business activities that have not changed with the tome revolution. However, the leadership has been facing several challenges, which are going to be more intensive and sensitive in the near future (Kotter, 2014). This is because several issues and external environmental forces are creating challenges for the leaders to apply the leadership in the workplace. Thus, as Bennis (2017) notes, it has been an essential issue for 21st-century leaders to be more dynamic, more knowledgeable, more accurate decision-makers and problem solvers, more power on analysis, and conflict dealing than ever before. The leaders of the 21st century should be more concerned and aware of internal politics, global economy, and globalization, global culture, and tradition, to be successful leaders in the workplace (Lundin and Lancaster, 2015).
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2.0 What are the predicted key competencies for 21st-century leaders?
2.1 Key competencies for 21st-century leaders
Strategic focus and vision: 21st-century leaders need to focus more on business strategies, mission, and vision. This is because global leadership has been nowadays more complex than ever before (Bennis, 2017). The leadership practices must be flexible and adaptable and must be able to manage multiple points of view at a time which will bring differentiation in the business, and give high-level goals. In addition, the leaders must be able to understand the changing needs and expectations of customers through tracking, reviewing, getting feedback, and listening to them (Agle, Nagarajan, Sonnenfeld, Srinivasan, 2017). Then, the leaders should be able to understand the needs and expectations of stakeholders, foster productive changes to develop enterprise vitally, and people interested in business (Bass, 2014).
Communicates powerfully and prolifically: in this age of globalization, it is essential for leaders to deal with different kinds of issues. The leaders understand and demonstrate the flexibility and empathy to circumvent unpredictable impediments (Agle, Nagarajan, Sonnenfeld, Srinivasan, 2017). Effective leaders build up effective communication with their followers and colleagues through different communication channels. The communication channels can be through team meetings, one to one conversation, email, or phone message, Skype call, phone call, blog post (Bass, 2014).
Inspires and motivates others: effective and great leaders take initiative to inspire and motivate their followers and colleagues, which make a difference in the workplace and provide improve performance and productivity (Bennis, 2017). Effective leaders are very optimistic, helpful, and supportive of their followers. They are inspirational, entrepreneurial, technologically savvy, inclusive, and devoted to services (McFarland, 2012).
Develop and articulate a value proposition: According to (Bennis, 2017) the effective and great leaders are able to develop and articulate a value proposition by maintaining that proposition in the emerging and changing marketplace which promotes the buyers to buy the products, investors to invest within the business, the employees to be more motivated and devoted towards the workplace, community to develop values and mentorship and learning. The 21st contrary leaders are more intangible (McFarland, 2012).
Solve problems and analysis issues: According to Pauline (2013), great leaders are able to analyze any issues raised in the business operation. Then, the leaders find out a number of solutions and chose the best one which is suit for both the business itself and employees and other business stakeholders (Bennis, 2017).
2.2 Theories which can be considered under the contemporary approaches of leadership
2.2.1 Attribution theory
According to this theory, the behavior of effective leaders and the initiatives taken by the leader’s impact business performance (Burns, 2014). Thus, this theory suggests that it is essential to understand the leaders’ both internal and external behavior. The internal behaviors include skills, commitments, and attitudes, and abilities. External behaviors include social, economic, and environmental factors (Bennis, 2017).
2.2.2 Charismatic leadership
Charismatic leaders are able to reveal effective business mission and vision and can take immediate actions against and for the followers with their skilled and instant knowledge (Burns, 2014). However, traits and particular circumstances affect the style of charismatic leadership (Bennis, 2017).
2.2.3 Transactional leadership
Transactional leaders highlight the legitimate authority and bureaucratic organizational structure to develop mutual exchange between leaders and their team members (Bennis, 2017). These leaderships design incentive and rewards scheme to motivate their followers towards the business goals (Burns, 2014)…………….