Table of Contents
1.0 Framing the topic/question within this review.
1.1 Research Background.
1.2 Research rationale.
1.3 Research Aims and Objectives.
1.4 Research Questions.
2.0 Search Strategies.
2.1 Inclusion Strategies.
2.2 Exclusion strategies.
2.3 How to do these inclusion and exclusion map to the research question?.
2.4 Data collection method.
3.0 Appraising the quality of studies.
4.0 Literature review/summarizing the evidence.
5.0 Discussion/interpreting the finding of literature.
1.0 Framing the topic/question within this review
1.1 Research Background
According to Walker, Katon, Koss, Bernstein (2016), the term childhood maltreatment has been linked with many somatic or psychological somatic symptoms in adult life and also psychiatric diseases such as depression, eating disorder, anxiety and stress disorders. Additionally, research conducted by Felitti, Anda and Marks (2016) stated that several kinds of child maltreatment are also linked with increased health problems in adult life. The medical diagnoses have linked with ‘childhood maltreatment’ and characterized several syndromes related to childhood maltreatment including disability, pain and abnormalities, fibromyalgia, headaches, chronic fatigue syndrome (Katon, Sullivan and Walker, 2015). According to Barsky and Borus (2017), despite this evidence, a number of medical literature have not succeeded to recognize childhood maltreatment as the significant forecast of adult health problems.
Other research conducted by Widom (2016) disclosed that there is a relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult health problems According to Loring (2017), girls are more trapped by childhood abuse or maltreatment. However, physical abuse of childhood is more dominant in comparison to sexual abuse. Moreover, physical abuse of childhood is more likely than the sexual abuse that occurs in men and women (US Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, 2016)
Many of the previous research has been conducted on small and/or clinical samples (Walker et al., 2016). While these studies are informative, sample selection issues limit the generalization of the findings (Irving, 2017). Furthermore, physical abuse of childhood and adult health have measured for the family background and the childhood difficulty variables (Anda et al., 2017). Physical abuse in childhood is rarely an isolated event and this childhood abuse/maltreatment can affect the health (Widom, 2016).
Research conducted by Whooley and Simoon (2016) disclosed that several childhood adversities as well as family background apply the ‘ACE study’ and observe the multiple effects of the multiple adversities instead of evaluating the effect of every adversity. However, it is essential to emphasize the increasing effect of abuse. In addition, it is also significant to understand how particular types of childhood abuse affect the adult health of the childhood adversities as well as the family background (Drossman et al., 2016).
1.2 Research rationale
A number of researchers have observed several patterns of physical and psychological abuse in childhood (Loring, 2017). The physical and psychological abuses are linked with a high level of negative impact. On the other hand, psychological violence has a negative effect while abuse is expected from the mother (Widom, 2016). In addition, violence from fathers is only linked with a high level of negative impact while it is experienced regularly. A study by Gavin (2016) indicated that abuse that occurred in childhood negatively affects later in adulthood. Research has provided evidence several kinds of maltreatment or abuse in childhood raise several health problems in adulthood (Widom (2016). More depressions are experienced among children who are abused/maltreated in comparison to the children who are not abused (Doyle, 2017).
The most common form of childhood abuse is emotional neglect, physical abuse, psychological abuse and sexual abuse. Furthermore, a study finds that the abusive behaviors are experienced the higher probability that would create depressive symptoms in human life (Katon, Sullivan and Walker, 2015). The relation between childhood abuse and its impact on several aspects of adult health has been examined by the researcher. A study conducted by Greenfield and Marks (2016) found a negative relation between the childhood abuse participants and their actual health in their adulthood. According to Loring (2017),
the mixture of several kinds of child maltreatment is linked with increased health problems in adult life. Childhood abuse or maltreatment is a major issue nowadays. O’Dougherty (2016) said that out of all the childhood abuse, emotional abuse is the key abuse. However, according to Loring (2017), there are a number of forms of childhood abuse that can affect adult health. This study discovers how different types of child maltreatment, childhood physical abuse affect the adult health of both men and women.
1.3 Research Aims and Objectives
This research mainly focuses on the impact of long-term psychological abuse experienced in childhood on adult well-being. In a word, the research aim is to understand how different types of psychological abuses in childhood (like child maltreatment) affect adult health. Then, this study provides suggestions on how child abuse can be reduced and can improve adult health.
- To review literature related to psychological abuse in childhood.
- To understand how psychological abuse experienced in childhood impacts adult well-being.
- Increase awareness of child abuse can lead to suggestions for future treatment and interventions.
- To provide suggestions on how child abuse can be reduced and/or prevented and can improve adult health.
1.4 Research Questions
- What are the types of psychological abuses in childhood that can impact the adult’s well-being?
- How the psychological abuse experienced in childhood impact adult well-being?
- How to increase awareness of child abuse that can lead to suggestions for future treatment and interventions?
- How can child abuse be reduced and/or prevented and can improve adult health?
The main keywords in this study are adult, psychological, childhood, impact, influence, maltreatment, health, neglect, health problems.
2.0 Search Strategies
2.1 Inclusion Strategies
The inclusion criterion was mainly any type of published article with complete text and the date range is from 2006 to till present. The 2006 year was selected as the starting date in accordance with the World Health Organizations’ (WHO) report “Working together for health (2006)”. WHO (2006) report recognizes 10-year plan from the year 2006. In this study, several cases are collected from journals, books and websites to study and review. Several journals on the research topic and subject matters are critically reviewed. Several cases have been studied and collected qualitative data to meet the research aims and objectives. This study mainly used the qualitative research method by developing several themes and contents. Then, these themes and contents are classified and analyzed focusing on the research aims and objectives.
2.2 Exclusion strategies
The exclusion criterion was any publication before the 2006 year. This criterion was to make sure the searches were concentrated on questions of the research. The questions of the research expected to discover what was recognized as the risky factors and how the health nurses or professionals of adult health problem recognized and prevented the physical health issues. In this research paper, both Meta-analysis and systemic reviews combine retrospective and prospective cohort, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies in order to come in the following inclusion criteria. They are this study is conducted based on original and experimental researches which were published in scholarly journals. Again, in this study effect of long-term psychological abuse in childhood rather than physical abuse on adult well-being has been considered.
2.3 How do these inclusion and exclusion map to the research question?
The search strategy included two searches including Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (Cinahl) and the other in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. Cinahl is the online inclusive source for the literature of nursing and allied health (Gerrish and Lathlean, 2015). Psychology and Behavioral Sciences is a comprehensive source that is covering behavioral, emotional and psychiatric problems with both observational and experimental processes.
Then, health-related results or behavioral risk factors were among those listed in the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study. In this study combination of physical and mental or only physical abuse was excluded. This study also includes types of psychological abuses in childhood that can have an impact on adulthood. This study also includes a way to understand how childhood abuse impacts adults. Moreover, this study also includes the suggestion related to future treatment and interventions for the psychological impact of childhood abuse in the adults. However, this study excludes any types of physical abuses or exposed sexual abuses that lead to physical disabilities or traumas………