First of all, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my honorable supervisor for his continuous support, motivation, patience, immense knowledge and experiences. His guidance has helped me a lot all the time to continue this DBA thesis from the beginning till end.
Then, I would like to thank all of the participants in the survey and interview conducted in this DBA work. Most importantly, I am grateful to the participants in the interview for giving their valuable time and ideas. Their participation and sharing of knowledge and information have supported me immensely to successfully complete my thesis.
Nevertheless, I am also grateful to my husband for his continuous supports (including financial, motivational and spiritual) during the whole DBA thesis writing. I thank my respected beloved parents for their spiritual support throughout DBA research and my life as well.
Last but not the least; I would like to thank my friend, Md. Siddique Ullah, for helping me in collecting primary data on my research, my research topic is on the staff motivation of Ready-Made Garments Industry in Bangladesh. However, I could not visit Bangladesh due to family issues and a kid (my son). He collected survey data from 200 participants and interview data from 25 participants on behalf of me in Bangladesh. His unforgettable contribution supported me to complete my DBA research work successfully.
This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of employee motivation on the firm performance in the perspective of Bangladesh ready-made garments industry and provide guidelines to the business leaders, policymakers, and stakeholders to take initiatives to improve industry performance through improving employee motivation. The objectives of this study are: to study the literature and theories related to the employee motivation, industry performance, and impact of employee motivation on industry performance; to examine the impact of employee motivation on industry performance in the perspective of management people in Bangladesh Ready-Made Garments (RMG); to determine the factors that play an important role for employee satisfaction and motivation in the ready-made garments industry in Bangladesh; to determine the factors that de-motivates the workers in the ready-made garments industry in Bangladesh; to provide appropriate guidelines to the business leaders, policymakers, and stakeholders to take initiatives to improve industry performance through improving employee motivation.
This study formulated several methodologies. As the philosophy, this study formulated pragmatism philosophy, and as a research approach, this study applies to combine inductive and deductive research approaches. As research design, this study combines both a descriptive and an explanatory research design. As the researcher needs to analyze the impact of employee motivation on the readymade garments industry of Bangladesh, both primary and secondary are needed to collect to meet the research objectives. In this study, both qualitative and quantitative research methods were applied to meet the research aims and objectives. In this study, as a qualitative research method, the researcher used unstructured interviews using 12 open-ended questions to collect qualitative data.
As a quantitative research method, a survey questionnaire was applied in this study. The survey questionnaire included 15 structured and semi-structured questions focusing on research objectives and research questions, where the questions were close-ended. For conducting interviews, a non-probability sampling technique is used. For conducting the interview, 25 managers were selected from different garments companies. For conducting a survey, the probability sampling method is applied in this study. The survey conducted on the garments workers on the challenges faced in their workplaces. The survey applied a probability quota sampling technique to collect data. At least, 200 people were randomly selected from different garments companies. These garments companies were selected from Dhaka City, Bangladesh.
The finding of survey data shows that the majority of the participants are female about 79.5%. The majority of the participants (64%) are from 26-55 age groups. Participants are from different educational backgrounds where the majority of the participants (75.5%) are from secondary and higher secondary backgrounds. It has found that most of the participants (70.50%) are from front-line workers. Different participants retain for different times in RMG. The majority of the participants (52.50%) retain for 3-6 years. In terms of satisfaction with salary, it has found that the majority of the participants (70.5%) are not satisfied with the salary.
In terms of rewards and incentives, the majority of the participants (70.5%) are not happy with the rewards and incentives. In terms of the current position, the majority of the participants (50%) are not happy with their current position. It has found that 65.5% of participants are not happy with the promotion system. In terms of current responsibilities, 63% of participants are not happy with the current responsibilities. In terms of promotional opportunity, 63.5% of participants are not happy with the promotional opportunity. It has found that the majority of the participants worked for 10 and 10+ hours. In terms of departmental helping attitude, 59% of participants are not satisfied with departmental helping attitude. In terms of workplace security, 61% of participants are not happy with security in the workplace. In terms of leave and holiday, the majority of the participants including 59.5% participants are not happy with the leave and holiday policy. In terms of owner behavior, it has found that the majority of the participants including 62.5% participants are not happy with the workplace environment. In terms of job freedom, 67% of participants are not satisfied with job freedom. In terms of medical and insurance facilities, it has found from the survey that 68.5% of participants are not satisfied with medical and insurance facilities.
In terms of workplace discrimination, the majority of the participants including 63.50% participants are not happy with the discrimination in the workplace. It has found that most of the participants including 67% participants are not happy with sincerity and honesty. In terms of inactive laws, the majority of the participants including 64% are not happy with the inactive laws. It has found that the majority of the participants including 60% participants were not happy about the inactive trade union. On the other hand, 64% of participants are not happy with the rumor provokes by the workers in the workplace. The majority of the participants including 64% participants are not happy with the mistreatment of workers. In terms of management policies, the majority of the participants including 68% participants are not happy with the management policies.
The finding of interview data shows that most of the employees in Bangladesh’s readymade garments industry are not satisfied with the salaries. Then, the employees of the readymade garments industry of Bangladesh are not satisfied with the reward and incentives provided by the employer. Then, leadership and management policies in the Ready-Made Garments industry are not effective enough to motivate the staff in the workplaces. Next, most of the workers are not happy with the overall service facilities provided by their employers. For example, workers are not happy with the promotion system because the promotion system is very poor in this industry that makes the worker unhappy.
Workers in Bangladesh Ready-Made Garments (RMG) are not satisfied with the workplace environment including departmental helping attitudes, security, leave and holidays, management behaviors, job freedom, medical and insurance facilities in their workplace. Workers in the RMG sector of Bangladesh are not happy with their working hours because they have to work for long hours (10+) in many cases but get poor wages.
The finding of this study suggested that employers in the Ready-Made Garments sector should increase salaries/wages, improve reward and incentive schemes including employees expects paid holiday, maternity leave, performance recognition from managers, promotion based skills and experiences, sick payment, medical facilities, pension schemes and insurance facilities to motivate their employers. The managers and leadership of garments factories in this industry should develop more leadership traits and management characteristics (including honesty, openness, support, hardworking, helpful) to motivate their followers and staff in the workplace.
Chapter 1: Introduction
Employee motivation is an essential element for all kinds of organizations in the current business world. Employee motivation in the workplace is directly related to the productivity and performance of businesses (Bratton and Gold, 2014). A motivated employee shows more loyalty, creativity and innovation, and flexibility than a de-motivated worker. Unhappy staff never give100% effort in the workplace (CIPD, 2015). Therefore, successful businesses evaluate their success by measuring their staff motivation and satisfaction (Torrington et al. (2014). An employee is motivated when his/her work is interesting; the supervisor is supportive; promotional opportunities are good; pay is fair; and co-workers are friendly (Michael, 2013).
Employee satisfaction and motivation reduce complaints and grievances, termination, turnover, absenteeism that ultimately improve staff productivity, punctuality and morale at workplaces. Staff motivation is also important in job satisfaction, self-respect, self-development, and self-esteem. Mullins (2015) said high employee motivation improves business performance and productivity significantly. However, it is difficult to gain high employee motivation and satisfaction in the workplace because there is no particular formula for increasing employee motivation. In addition, gaining high staff motivation depends on individual needs and expectations (Torrington et al., 2014).
Readymade Garments Industry (RMG) is the backbone of the economy of Bangladesh and it is the catalyst for the development of Bangladesh. Bangladesh earns billions of dollars by exporting cloth products to the foreign countries where the clothes are made in the RMG industry and this also increases jobs for millions of people for Bangladesh for the last few years. In addition, the tag named “Made in Bangladesh” has taken pride or glory for Bangladesh by creating a brand over the world. Once a time Bangladesh was designated as the “bottomless basket” but now it has recognized as the “basketful of wonders.” Bangladesh is a small country with limited resources which has been managing a 7.24% annual GDP growth rate and also has carried outstanding social and human development. Bangladesh will be recognized as a middle-income country by 2021. Bangladesh believes that this dream will come true at a specific time and the RMG industry will play a significant role to materialize this dream.
The first garments industry, established in 1974 in Dhaka, could not establish itself in the export-oriented business. But in 1976, the National economy listed garments industries as foreign money earner industries. In 1978, the first well-planned “Desh Garments” was established in Chittagong. It has emerged as a fast-growing industry in 1980. In 1983, there were 50 industries in the private sector. From then till the gulf war and lastly, till September 11, 2000, the industries need not look back even currently in the period of the global recession. Now the total amount of RMG industry is about 5 thousand 200. Bangladesh usually earns about $25641026. RMG sector earns almost 65%-76% of the total foreign earnings of Bangladesh’s national economy. Bangladesh being a developing country has very few sectors to earn foreign currency; however, Bangladesh has meanwhile achieved name and fame in the Ready-Made Garments (RMG) sector. During 2009- 10, the RMG sector has earned $4329 million……………………………….
1.3 Aims and objectives
This study visualizes factors that play an important role in employee satisfaction and motivation in the ready-made garments industry in Bangladesh. Then, this study evaluates the effectiveness of employee motivation on the firm performance in the perspective of Bangladesh’s ready-made garments industry. In addition, this study will provide appropriate guidelines to the business leaders, policymakers, and stakeholders to take initiatives to improve industry performance through improving employee motivation. These initiatives will ultimately improve employee satisfaction, develop the socio-economic condition, and increase export earnings…………..