Table of Contents
1.1 Purpose of this report
1.3 Background of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona, USA.
1.4 Water situation of the Sonoran Desert of Arizona, USA.
1.5 Possible techniques of water provision.
1.6 Assess the possible methods of water provisions.
Freshwater supply in arid regions has been an economically and socially significant issue in the present world. The word arid refers to dry. A region is called arid when it faces a severe shortage of available water. Arid regions hinder or prevent the growth and/or development of animal life and plants (Griffiths, 2012). According to a report published by Google (2014), 33% of the total Earth’s land is arid regions. Most arid places are located in South, North and Central America, Africa and Australia. This report outlines possible techniques of water provision to a particularly arid region, called the Sonoran Desert in Arizona, USA.
1.1 Purpose of this report
There are two key objectives of this report outlined as follows:
1) To assess the possible techniques for freshwater provision to the arid region of Sonoran Desert in Arizona, USA.
2) To provide a recommendation to the authority of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona, the USA about the possible methods of water provision clarifying change required.
1.3 Background of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona, USA
One of the well-known arid regions in the world is the Sonoran Desert in Arizona, USA. The Sonoran Desert covers about 100,000 square miles. This is the hottest desert in the North American deserts. However, it has a distinct bimodal rainfall pattern which produces high biological diversity (DesertUSA, 2015). Warm winters in the Sonora Desert in Arizona attract tourists from across the world. Winter storms are a very common phenomenon in this arid region, where the summer monsoon host many woody plants and annuals. The key climate of the Sonoran Desert is rainfall. The air is cool and the desert is damp when the Sonoran Desert does get rain. On the other hand, when the desert is windy, it creates a sand storm. The desert valley is still hot while up the mountains are cool, and even snow-covered (Elora, 2013).
1.4 Water situation of the Sonoran Desert of Arizona, USA
The data come from the Water Resources Research Centre of the University of Arizona discloses that the Sonoran Desert of Arizona depends on groundwater, treated wastewater (effluent) as well as surface water to meet the water demands and needs. Most of the surface supplies are transported through canals. In addition, dams are a significant part of surface water storage systems. Agriculture uses more than 70% of water in this desert, where municipal uses 25% of the total water and 7% of total water supplied are used by industrial purposes. Most of the communities in Arizona depend heavily on groundwater (Megdal, 2014).
|Water sources||Acre Feet||Total percentage|
|Surface water sources||Colorado River||1398000||20%|
|Constructed Central Arizona Project (CAP)||1025000||15%|
Table: Sources of water in Sonoran Desert of Arizona, USA Source: (Megdal, 2014)
The data in the above table discloses that 56% of total water usages in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona come from surface water resources including the Colorado River (20%), CAP (15%) and in-state rivers (21%), while 41% of total water usages come from underground and 3% come from reclaimed water.
1.5 Possible techniques of water provision for the Sonoran Desert
The key possible methods of water provision in the Sonoran Desert in Arizona, USA are listed below:
- Surface water sources including the Colorado river constructed Central Arizona Project (CAP), and In-State Rivers
- Groundwater, and
- Rainwater harvesting
The possible techniques of water provision to the arid region of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona, USA are assessed according to the following criteria:
- Easy to use
- Water quality, and
- Water availability
1.6 Assess the possible methods of water provisions for the Sonoran Desert
According to research conducted by the Water Resources Research Centre at the University of Arizona, the average rainfall in central Arizona’s desert is between 19 to 30 centimetres annually. There are two key rainy seasons in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona: a) summer monsoon; b) winter storms (Megdal, 2004). This means the rainwater harvesting method can be used in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona to supply fresh water for domestic users. In addition, as pipeline water provisions are not available and the groundwater level is going down there is a tendency in the local community in this arid region to practice rainwater harvesting method. However, as Kaplan (2011) notes, rainwater can be hazardous because of pollutants like atmospheric constituents, bird dropping, and dust. Thus, although this method is cheap and easy to access, the quality of the water can be impacted…………………..