Table of Contents
Task 1: Research into the theories, principles, and models of learning in education and training.
Task 2: Analysis of theories, principles, and models of communication used in teaching, learning, and assessment
Task 3: Analyze theories, principles, and models of assessment and explain ways in which they can be applied when assessing learning.
Task 4: Research into the theories and models of curriculum development
Task 5: Research into the theories and models of reflection and evaluation.
Models of reflection.
In the practice of teaching, there are many theories propagated by various popular theorists. The process of teaching involves the students and the teachers having to know and follow some instructions, guidance, theories, models, etc.
The first task of this paper discusses the research into the theories, principles, and models of learning in education and training. In the second task, the paper explains the Analysis of theories, principles, and models of communication used in teaching, learning, and assessment. Also, the paper analyses the theories, principles in the communication utilized in the teaching, learning, and assessment. The fourth task explains how they can be applied in the teaching practice. While in the fifth task the paper discusses the research into the theories and model in curriculum development and the sixth task reflects and evaluates the theories and models used in curriculum development.
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Task 1: Research/a look into the theories, principles, and models of learning in education and training
a) Theories, principles, and models of learning and models of learning preferences
Theories and principles of learning
Following the Atherton (2013) study, the key four school theories are Cognitivist School; Behaviorists School; the Humanist School, and Constructivist School. The principles of learning are given below in the diagram:
Diagram: Principle of Learning Source: Donachy (2014)
As Armstrong, T. (2008), stated, the major part of the behaviorists considers the guidance program which is usually closed like the anticipation of the outcome of the learning. The measurement of the behavior is usually graded following the science which is mainly done by the scientific indicator settled by the behaviorists.
Atherton (2013) stated that the teacher is the point of concentration in the procedure of learning and teaching. According to the behaviorists, the human and animals learn in the same process and in other to know about the learning process of the animal in the past, the animals experimented in the laboratory.
The behaviorists believed that the response we give to the stimulus given to us from the external environment, main referrers to our learning process. John Broadus Watson (1878-1958)), Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), Edward Thorndike (1874 –1949), and B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)-Neo-behaviorists originated the prime theories of behaviorism.
Gravells (2011) disclosed that, in this theory of learning, cognitivism gives the learners chance to get acknowledged about themselves and their preferred learning process. In this theory, the intellectual learning process is mainly given in/during concentration particularly the thought process of the learner. As Walker (2007) said, according to the cognitivism theory, the learning process is defined as gaining knowledge from sense, thought, experience, and incidents. The prime theories of cognitivism are developed by Jerome Bruner (1915- ), Jean Piaget (1896-1980), and Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934).
According to Bruner’s (b.1915) statement, the learner’s requirement to know the outcomes of the learning process is not the only important thing to focus on, but also attending to the learning process is also an as important part of the basics of the learning process.
According to Atherton (2013), a humanist’s job is to meet the learners’ needs. Following the notes given by Poe (1996), humanist’s work is to keep the focus on the progress and the development of the learners. The prime theories of humanism were developed by Carl Rogers (1902-1987), Abraham Maslow (1908-1970), and Howard Gardner (1943).
According to Abraham Maslow’s (1908-1970) statement, meeting the basic needs of the learners is the first job to be done prior to moving ahead in the higher levels of the learning. Here the learning process can be hampered by the personal issues or complication which should be taken care of.
Following the notes given by Atherton (2013), the fundamental idea of the constructivism theory is the learning process that occurs through gaining new information from an incident and contrasting them with the previous experiences. Armstrong, T. (2008), added that the productiveness of the learning process is based on the combination of acquiring new information and contrasting them with previous experiences……………………
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